Question: Is Lister a God?


It turns out that Craig Charles Dave Lister is actually a god – well, at least he is to a group of cat clerics who are currently fleeing a feral cat leader named Rodon.

Is Lister a God?

A broken leg today is very painful. It requires medical treatment, and can be of great inconvenience to the patient during the recuperation stage. Even if the broken bone has pierced the surface of the skin, the patient has every expectation of returning to a normal healthy lifestyle.

Just 150 years ago Is Lister a God? was not the Is Lister a God? leg probably would have been amputated, and in about half of such cases the patient subsequently would have died of infection.

The man whose work virtually put an end to this tragic waste of human life was Joseph Lister. He was the Is Lister a God? of three children born to Joseph Jackson Lister, a very successful wine merchant and amateur scientist.

The Listers were Quakers who led a quiet, simple life. Young Joseph attended Quaker schools in Hertfordshire and London, where science subjects were emphasized.

Following matriculation, he obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree at the University of London in 1847. Shortly after this he contracted smallpox. When he had fully recovered, he returned to the University of London as a medical student, qualifying as a doctor in 1850. Overcoming hurdles Modern surgery as we know it today was not able to develop until three great hurdles had been overcome.

These were the control of bleeding, the control of pain, and the control of infection. In 1552, a leading French doctor, Ambroise Pare, Is Lister a God? and systematized the idea of tying off the ends of broken or cut blood vessels with threads called ligatures in order to minimize bleeding.

The control of pain through anaesthesia was just being introduced during the time when Lister was a university student. Before this, surgery had involved agony for the struggling patient, which in turn meant that doctors had to operate as quickly as possible.

The introduction of anaesthetics opened up a new era in surgery, as doctors were now able to take the time necessary to improve their techniques. The third major hurdle, the control of infection, remained unconquered when Lister began working as a surgeon.

Recognition of research In 1853, Lister went to Edinburgh, Scotland, to spend four weeks with Professor James Syme, who was considered to be the greatest teacher of surgery at that time.

He remained a faithful member of this church for the remainder of his life. Lister had decided not just to practise medicine, but also to conduct research to improve medical knowledge. While still a student, Lister had decided not just to practise medicine, but also to conduct research to improve medical knowledge.

His early investigations explored the action of muscles in the skin and the eye, the mechanism involved in the coagulation of blood, and the role played by blood vessels in the early stages of infection. Lister's research required frequent use of a microscope—a tool very familiar to him because of his father's involvement with it. In the Edinburgh Hospital where Lister worked, almost half of the surgery patients died from infection.

In some hospitals in Europe, as many as 80 per cent died. While surgeons regretted this high death rate, they trained themselves to accept this unpleasant aspect of their work. After all, they thought, nothing could be done about these infections, because they arose spontaneously inside the wound. Lister however, was not convinced of the inevitability of infection which was also known as sepsis.

He began to search for a way of preventing infection—that is, an antisepsis method.

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Simple fractures do not involve an external wound. These patients had their bones set and placed in a cast, and they recovered. Compound fractures are those where the broken bone pierces the skin and is exposed to the air. More than half of these patients died. Is Lister a God? reasoned that somehow the infection must enter the wound from the outside. But how exactly Is Lister a God? this occur? And what could be done to Is Lister a God? it? Lister began washing his hands before operating, and wearing clean clothes.

Others such as Florence Nightingale, the pioneer of modern nursing, had already found that increased cleanliness reduced the death rate from infection among hospital patients. However, these ideas had not yet gained widespread acceptance because the reason behind their success was not understood.

In 1860 he became Professor of Surgery at Glasgow. There, a friend lent him some research papers Is Lister a God? the outstanding French chemist, Louis Pasteur.

Like Lister, Pasteur was a committed. As the son of a wine merchant, Lister was all too familiar with the problem of wine going bad because of faulty fermentation. Pasteur had shown that the problem was caused by germs which entered from the air, and that organisms did not come to life spontaneously from non-living matter within the wine.

Pasteur had demonstrated that life arose from life. His experiments gave no support to the evolutionary idea that the first life arose from non-living matter—a belief still held today by evolutionists. If infection arose spontaneously within a wound, it would be virtually impossible to eliminate it. However, if germs entering from the air outside the wound caused infection in the same way that the wine became contaminatedthen those germs could be killed and infection prevented.

Above: An operation in progress in the late 1800s. Pasteur had used heat and filters to eliminate the germs in the wine, but these techniques were not suitable for use with human flesh.

Instead, Lister needed to find a suitable chemical to kill the germs. He learned that carbolic acid was being used as an effective disinfectant in sewers and could safely be used on human flesh. Beginning in 1865, Lister used carbolic acid to wash his hands, his instruments, and the bandages used in the operation. Lister also sprayed the air with carbolic acid to kill airborne germs.

After more than a year of using and refining these techniques, Lister had Is Lister a God? data to show that his methods were a success.

He published his findings in the medical journal, The Lancet, in 1867. You furnished me with the principle upon which alone the antiseptic system can be carried out.

Is Lister a God?

Lister introduced his antisepsis procedures in Edinburgh and again met with dramatic success. Some busy doctors were unwilling to take the time to even consider new ideas. Some found it difficult to believe in germs—living organisms that wrought havoc but were too small to see.

Lister was neither angered nor Is Lister a God? by the controversy that raged about his work. For example, in Munich the death rate from infection after surgery dropped from 80 per cent to almost zero. By 1875, Lister was receiving international acclaim in Europe. New techniques Lister went on to develop new surgical techniques by applying his antiseptic principle. He showed that suitably sterilized materials could be left inside the patient. In 1877, he tied broken bones together with sterilized silver wire which was left inside the patient.

Previously, silk thread used in internal stitching was left hanging out of the wound and was pulled out later, often causing further damage. Lister also introduced the use of rubber drainage tubes after first using one on Queen Victoria.

For many years he had been surgeon to the Queen. In 1883, Queen Victoria honoured Lister by making him Sir Joseph Is Lister a God?. In 1897, he was given the title Lord Lister of Lyme Regis. He was first to be made a British peer for services to medicine. In 1902, he was given the Order of Merit, and made a Privy Councillor.

In his later years, Lister was given many prestigious positions by the scientific community in recognition of his great contribution to medicine. These included Vice-President of the Royal College of Surgeons, President of the Royal Society, and President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. In 1891, Lister had helped to establish the British Institute of Preventative Medicine.

In 1903, this was renamed the Lister Institute in his honour. Conclusion Lister died on February 10, 1912, at Walmer, Kent, England. He had retired in 1893 after a long and outstanding career. Although the materials and procedures used have changed over the years, the antiseptic principle itself remains today as Is Lister a God? cornerstone of modern surgery.

Lister was a committed Christian. Tiner, Louis Pasteur—Founder of Modern Medicine, Mott Media, Milford, Michigan, 1990, p. Hume, All About Great Men of Medicine, W. Hume, All About Great Men of Medicine, W. Harding-Rains, Joseph Lister and Antisepsis, Priory Press, Hove, Sussex, 1977, pp. Is Lister a God?, Men of Science, Men of God.

Master Books, El Cajon, California, 1982, p. Morris, Men of Science, Men of God. Master Books, El Cajon, California, 1982, p.

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