Question: What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat?

In Canada, the term Inuit is used to mean both the Inuit and Yupiak peoples. Inupiat – The singular form of Inupiaq. Inupiaq – In Alaska and Arctic Siberia, where Inuit is not spoken, the comparable terms are Inupiaq and Yupik, neither of which has gained as wide a usage in English as Inuit.

What is the difference between Inupiaq and Inupiat?

It can refer to a person of this group (He is an Inupiaq) and can also be used as an adjective (She is an Inupiaq woman). The plural form of the noun is Inupiat, referring to the people collectively (the Inupiat of the North Slope).

How do you say hello in Inupiat?

Atelihai, pronounced ahh-tee-lee-hi, is the Inuktitut word for hello or welcome.

Where do the Inupiat live?

The Inupiaq are members of the larger Inuit culture, which spans the entire northern coasts of Alaska and Canada, as well as Greenland on the whole. Inupiaq people live as far south as Unalakleet, north as Barrow, west as Little Diomede Island, and east as Barter Island.

Are Inupiaq people Inuit?

In Canada, the term Inuit is used to mean both the Inuit and Yupiak peoples. Inupiat – The singular form of Inupiaq. Inupiaq – In Alaska and Arctic Siberia, where Inuit is not spoken, the comparable terms are Inupiaq and Yupik, neither of which has gained as wide a usage in English as Inuit.

An Inuit woman tending a. The are who live in the and regions of North America parts ofCanada, and. The ancestors of the present-day Inuit are culturally related to northern Alaska and Siberia and western Alaskaand thewho live in the of Siberia and Alaska. In Inuit communities, the women play a crucial role in the survival of the group. The responsibilities faced by Inuit women were considered equally as important as those faced by the men.

Because of this, women are given due respect and an equal share of influence or power. Recent modernization and urbanization have transformed traditional and influenced the role of women within the culture.

These changes include both positive and negative impacts on the overall well-being of Inuit women. Inuit men and women needed each other to survive. Married couples had to work together to overcome nearly impossible living conditions. Because every individual had to rely on a partner to survive, marriages were often arranged at birth to ensure the survival of the family.

A young woman was eligible for marriage afterbut a man had to prove he was efficient enough in hunting to support a family before he could marry. Inuit marriages rarely included large ceremonies; couples were often considered married after the birth of their first child. There were and marriages, but was rare because few men could afford to support multiple wives. Families exchanged gifts before marriages, but no official or was paid. Although men were considered the head of the family, both genders could demand a divorce.

However, divorce was frowned upon because it was bad for the family and the community as a whole. Spouses were sometimes traded or exchanged, and women had some say in this process. This was a common alternative to divorce because neither family would be without a component vital to its survival — a mother and a wife. In Inuit culture, the family was typically represented by a lamp or a hearth, which was the property and responsibility of the wife.

This lamp had significant symbolic meaning in the family, What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat? community, and the culture. Women's duties included gathering other sources of food, such as eggs and berries, and preparing What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat?

food the hunters brought back. Animals killed by the hunters needed to be butchered and What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat? quickly, before they went bad or froze before being butchered. Women were traditionally responsible for the butchering, skinning, and cooking of animals taken by the hunters. In Inuit culture, it was believed that the women's respect for the animals killed during hunting trips, What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat?

subsequent care when butchering them, would ensure successful hunts. Food, as well as other resources, were often shared throughout the community as needed. Women were in charge of the distribution of food to families in the community.

The Inuit moved with the seasons to maximize their chances of a successful hunt; their entire families often moved with them. Because of this, tools and other items used by the Inuit for hunting and food preparation had to be light and easily transported. Among some Inuit groups, this led to the development of complex tools such as light and powerful metal and wood stoves, which were being used by the late 1800s.

Inuit parents showed a very high level of warmth and affection to their children. Inuit children usually began to contribute to the family and community by the age of 12 through activities like picking berries and hunting small game.

During this period, they learned skills from their parents through close observation. Learning through observation was the chosen method because it was not practical for children to practice What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat? skills by sewing valuable skins or accompanying men on important hunting trips. Women raised boys and girls. Men taught boys certain skills, such as hunting, and women taught girls certain skills, such as sewing.

Starting from the time the child is born, he or she is introduced to their duties and ties of kinship. One way the Inuit tribe achieves this is by the practice referred to as name-soul.

After a member of the family has passed away, their name is used as the name for a child of the same family line. The name provides a child with a cultural tie, belonging within their community, and personal identity. In addition, name-soul allows for prior family members to carry on their legacy in their family lineage even after passing. The children are raised in a family-oriented environment, as their name serves as a reminder that the group comes first.

There were no boy's and girl's names in Inuit culture, so it was common for a girl to have the name of her grandfather, for example. Children were taught at a young age to listen to their parents and respect their elders, and were What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat? with more autonomy than non-Inuit children. Over disciplining a child was seen as counterproductive, so children were rarely punished for transgressions. Learning was regarded as a partnership between child and adult, with children being more guided through life than directly taught or lectured.

Adoption was very common in Inuit culture, and it was often very informal. Unwanted babies, or babies a family could not support, could be offered to another family. If the other family accepted, the adoption was complete. A mother abandoned an infant in hopes that someone less desperate might find and adopt the child before the cold or animals killed it. The belief that the Inuit regularly resorted to infanticide may be due in part to studies done by Asen Balikci, Milton Freeman, and David Riches among thealong with the trial of.

Similar to menarche, many young Inuit women were unaware of the indications of their first pregnancy. Elders recount that young women often thought that they had been cured of their menses when they experienced for the first time. It was not uncommon for the young woman to learn about her first pregnancy from her mother or grandmother when she began to show or carry weight.

To prevent miscarriage, the husband and camp were to assure that the woman did not become mentally stressed or exhausted during the pregnancy. This taboo extended to include not allowing the husband to get angry with his wife at any time during the pregnancy. If miscarriage did occur, the woman was expected to inform her mother and the camp right What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat?. According to traditional Inuit beliefs, hiding such a secret would bring bad luck for the camp such as hunger, lack of food, or illness.

These taboos, which were passed down through generations and varied somewhat across geographic regions or camps, informed the woman's behaviors and activities in order to prevent complications, promote a healthy birth, and ensure desired characteristics of the infant. For example, in regards to activity, the Inuit had many pittailiniq about maintaining physical activity throughout pregnancy and resisting idleness or laziness, which was believed to adversely affect labor and birth.

The Inuit words sailliq and sailliqtuq, distinguished between the women who relaxed sailliq as appropriate, and those who relaxed too much, sailliqtuq.

In interviews with Inuit elders, numerous pittailiniq about the woman's activity and behavior in pregnancy are discussed. Some of these are listed below. Consistently, elders report that pregnant women were to abstain from raw meat, eating only boiled or cooked meat, during pregnancy. Men were also expected to observe this rule, but only when in the presence of their wives.

The preferential treatment of pregnant women also extended to food, and the best pieces What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat? meat and food were always reserved for the pregnant woman. Some of these pittailiniq are listed below. This ensures that your baby will be beautiful. Women expected and trusted that they would receive instruction and advice from their midwife and other birth attendants i. A thick layer of caribou fur on top What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat?

the heathers was desired in order to soak up the blood lost during birth. In these cases, the elders report that either the men would assist or the woman would endure birth alone. Due to the uncertainty of their location at the time of birth, the woman often did not know who her midwife would be until birth. The responsibilities of the midwife varied somewhat by geographic region and camp, but often included, 1 comforting the woman, 2 knowing a woman's body, including 'what was inside', 3 instructing the woman during labour on what to expect, 4 repositioning the woman to promote quick deliveries, and 5 dealing with complications.

In most communities, the only man who became intentionally involved in birth was an. Traditionally, when a woman began having contractions, her midwife would gather other women of the community to help the labouring woman through the birthing process. Additional signs of labour noted by the Inuit midwife included a brown strip of discharge, broken water, stomachache, or the urge to pass a What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat?

movement. Although it was cause for great celebration, labour is traditionally a time of quiet and calm in the Inuit community, and the midwife would commonly whisper her counsel to the mother-to-be. If the woman had followed the traditions throughout her pregnancy, she could expect her labour to be quick and easy. Many of these also extended to the actions of the woman's midwife, who was also commanded to be swift in all aspects of her life so that her client would enjoy a quick delivery.

Very often, women were expected to continue their daily chores up until the late stages of labour and endure labour pains without the aid of pain management. The midwife's goals during labour typically included keeping the woman from becoming irritable or screaming, preventing her legs from opening, preventing her from peeing or having a bowel movement, and encouraging activity and position changes.

The positions in which an Inuk woman laboured varied according to the midwife's preferences and her own comfort. These include lithotomy, side-lying,and standing positions have all been described in the literature. Often, a caribou pelt was placed under the woman and she was allowed to choose a bed or the floor. Some communities' midwives employed the use of equipment such as ropes to pull on or a box to lean over to help ease the pains of labour, but little evidence of either or pain relief is described.

Traditionally, the woman was required to have her spine completely straight for the entirety of her labour and delivery. To facilitate this, the midwife would often place a wooden board behind the woman to keep her back aligned.

Additionally, a rolled towel or block of wood was used to keep the woman's legs and feet apart during labour, which, in the midwives' view, helped to speed the labour along. However, the woman played an active role in her own birth experience and was encouraged to follow her body's own physiologic cues regarding pushing and rest. When she was ready to push, the midwife would tell the woman to pull on her hair with both hands and bear down. While most Inuit women gave birth at home, in some Alaskan communities women gave birth in separate birthing huts aanigutyak built exclusively for this purpose.

If this was not done, the place where the woman gave birth had to be abandoned. Once the baby had crowned and was born, the midwife would cut the still-pulsating umbilical cord with a special knife and tie it with caribou sinew. The midwives knew that the sinew carried a much lower risk of infection than other materials available to them. The cord was cut with enough length to pull out the placenta by hand if necessary. After the child was born and the placenta was ready for delivery, many Inuit midwives would instruct the woman to get on all fours and push in this position.

Midwives were also versed in providing fundal massage to reduce the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Some Inuit communities wrapped the placenta in cloth and buried it among the rocks of the tundra. One elder midwife in Nunavut described that after birth her mother-in-law very briefly cared for the house and chores until she felt better.


She also described, however, that she was feeling better soon after birth and eagerly performing chores behind her mother-in-law's back. In regards to physical care after birth, the information is also minimal. Women, who are able to breastfeed, do so immediately after birth, often continuing for two years or longer.

What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat?

Breastfeeding served as their only method of contraception and birth spacing. While breastfeeding, the elders describe the importance of keeping the breasts warm to prevent cracking and drinking broth for nutrition.

If perineal tears have occurred during the delivery, they are left to heal on their own; the Inuit do not traditionally perform or suture tears. And it was believed that if the mother followed the pittailiniq in pregnancy, the child would be healthy and follow a good life in the community. Immediately after birth, the infant was assessed for breathing. If the infant was not breathing, then the midwife would hang the infant upside by his feet and slap his buttocks.

The exposed cord stump was then covered with burnt and What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat? infant was placed in a rabbit fur or cloth pouch, sewn by the sinaji. The pouch served not only to keep the infant warm but also as a diaper and protection for the healing umbilical cord stump.

It was believed that the cord stump should fall off on its own and not be looked for by the parents. If the mother found the cord stump, it indicated that the child would become hyperactive around age four.

The infant was not routinely washed after birth. Traditional Inuit midwives describe that the first stool should be observed outside the womb, as it could cause clotting and complications if left in the mother. The treatment for which was to massage the woman's stomach, promoting blood flow.

The midwives also expected the infant to urinate almost immediately after birth, indicating that there was no obstruction or genital abnormality. Infants, as What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat? as the rabbit or cloth pouch, were always dried promptly after urinating or having a bowel movement. And by a year of age, elders claim that children were toilet trained. This person then became the infant's sanaji for an infant boy or arnaliaq for an infant girl and assumed a lifelong role in the child's life.

If the infant was a boy, he would later call this person his arnaquti and give her his first catch as a child. The sanaji was also responsible for cutting the umbilical cord, providing the infant's first clothes, naming the child tuqurausiqblessing the child kipliituajuq and conferring the desired characteristics onto the child.

What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat?

It was believed that the child's direction was shaped from the earliest days of life and consequently, these practices were held in high esteem as they determined the child's future. In rare instances, the child might be considered : ᓯᐱᓂᖅmeaning the infant is believed to have changed their physical sex from male to female at the moment of birth. This concept has primarily been historically attested in areas of thesuch as and.

Sipiniq children were regarded as socially male, and would be named after a male relative, perform a male's tasks, and would wear traditional tailored for men's tasks. This generally lasted until puberty, but in some cases continued into adulthood and even after the sipiniq person married a man.

According to elders, the infant remained in nearly constant physical contact with her mother from the day of birth; sleeping on the family platform, riding in the baby carrier and parka worn by the motheror nestled in her parka for feeding. In particular, the Inuit believed that crying was an indication that the infant wanted to have What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat?

particular name. And that often once named, the infant would stop crying. In addition, as the infant or child is a representative of their namesake, they are considered to generally know what they want or need. For example, when they are hungry or tired.

Given this belief, it was also considered inappropriate to tell an infant or child what to do, as it was similar to commanding an elder or another adult, which violated social rule in Inuit culture. When an infant or child exhibited the same behaviour as their namesake it was called atiqsuqtuq.

Children in the 21st century are still named for other family members but the name may be an English one rather than a traditional Inuit name. Warm, light, and serviceable clothing was perhaps the greatest achievement of the Inuit. For protection against the bitter Arctic winter, it has not been surpassed by even the best modern clothing.

The clothing created by women was vital because life in Arctic conditions was not possible without extremely well-made clothing to protect from the bitter cold. The clothing was created by the careful sewing of animal skins and furs using ivory needles, which were highly valuable in Inuit society.

The process of preparing skins to be sewn together for creating clothes was done by women and was an arduous task. Skins had to be scraped, stretched, and softened before they were ready to be sewn. In addition to this, the households that Inuit women were expected to help construct and care for could range fromto semi-subterraneanto in the summer months. This required an understanding of complex architectural concepts, as well as the principles of insulation.

A good amount of strength was required to construct Inuit shelters. Because of this, Inuit women often worked together and enlisted the help of men to build their homes.

For both practical and social purposes, these houses would be built close together or were made large enough for more than one family to live in. For example, hunting was generally done by men. Sewing clothes, cooking and preparing food, gathering food outside of hunting, and caring for the home were generally done by women. This does not mean that women never hunted, nor that men never helped with other jobs. This was just how the work was traditionally divided.

Women hunted and boated for enjoyment or when food was scarce and the community needed extra hunters. Men and women worked together to create a functioning culture. The men would not be able to go hunting without the warm clothes the women sewed for them, and the women would not have enough food without the meat the men brought back from their hunting trips.

Because of this, the work done by women received equal respect to the work done by men. While men and women generally did different work, one type of work was not considered better or more important than other types. It is easy to think that because men only had one job that they did less work. The truth is that hunting was extremely physically demanding and time-consuming, and often required traveling for days or weeks at a time.

As a result, the in Inuit culture was relatively equal in the amount of work done. Important decisions, such as when to and where to, could be made exclusively by men. Inuit people had as as any group on earth, but some groups did have tribal councils or groups of elders who made decisions for the community. These councils were almost exclusively male.

Because of this, the Inuit women had little to no say in some of their communities' most important decisions. Men usually had the final say in issues such as arranging marriages and adoption or infanticide, which have a huge impact on women's lives. Although What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat? had a relatively high position socially, and had significant control of their own home, as well as ceremonially important jobs such as lighting and tending to lamps and distributing food, their power was usually limited to those areas.

In addition to this, if men were unhappy with how a woman was handling her responsibilities, they could take over or transfer her work to another woman in the community whom they considered more capable. With women having less power, they are often put in difficult positions when they are not involved in the decision-making process. For example, a pregnant woman, or a woman with a newborn child, may not be able to migrate hundreds of miles through Arctic conditions in search of better hunting grounds.

Factors such as these are rarely taken into account when men are the sole decision-makers for a community. The Inuit are now a modern people and, like almost all indigenous peoples, no longer live the way their ancestors did. This is especially true of Inuit women. Male Inuit initially took the lead in assimilation by learning the language of the arriving culture and taking on modern, wage-earning What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat?

however, a lack of education began to hinder the men's ability to find and keep jobs. As a result of this, women began to lead the way in. Women started by finding work as domestic servants, store clerks, hospital aides, classroom assistants, interpreters, and in weaving and knitting shops.

Inuit women tend to go to school more than Inuit men, and this is especially true of college. Some universities in regions where the Inuit are prominent, such as thehave programs designed specifically for the Inuit people.

Women, much more often than men, take advantage of these programs. Because Inuit women seek What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat? education and, subsequently, better jobs, they have increasingly taken on the role of primary wage earner for the family. This has caused men to assume responsibilities in the house that were traditionally done by the women, such as raising children and keeping the home in order.

Women have begun to seek more power for themselves, both in decision-making in the family and the culture as a whole. As the primary wage earners, working women are now considered the heads of their families and have the upper hand in making decisions for them. This has complicated the relationship between Inuit men and women. Reactions such as these perpetuate the cycle, as men are less likely to be employed after exhibiting these behaviours. Another change that has begun is that Inuit women have increasingly started to run for political office.

Although the positions they seek are often at the community and local levels, this increase in reflects the new confidence Inuit women have found in the modern world. Three out of four members of parliament for the have been women,and.

A possible explanation is that the was traditionally high in fat and protein and low in fruits and vegetables. More likely explanations include a change in diet after modernization, a decrease in physical activity as traditional jobs such as hunting and constructing homes are practised less, or exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs.

Whatever the cause, and are known recurring health problems for the Inuit people. Studies have shown that these issues are worse for women than other groups.

Another major issue facing the Inuit is that, after modernization, and Inuit, and substance abuse have become increasingly prevalent. The pressure for Inuit women to conform to the dress and behavior of modern is immense; however, many aspects of modern culture are foreign to the Inuit women and are at odds with the traditional practices of their culture.

What is the difference between Inuit and Inupiat?

Inuit Women: Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change. Canadian Arctic Modernization and Change in Female Inuit Role Identification. American Ethnologist 2 4 : 662—686. In The Oxford Companion to Canadian History. Woman of the House: Gender, Architecture, and Ideology in Dorset Prehistory.

Arctic Anthropology 40 1 : 121—138. Resource Structure, Scalar Stress, and the Development of Inuit Social Organization.

World Archaeology 31 1 : 21—37. A New Design: When Europeans Met Inuit in Labrador, Home and Hearth Were Reshaped. Iqaluit, Nunavut: Nunavut Arctic College. National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health.

Canadian Medical Association Journal 162 10 : 1481. Midwifery Today and Childbirth Education, 4056. Interviewing Inuit elders Introduction 1 : 141-143. Childbirth among the Canadian Inuit: A review of the clinical and cultural literature. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 65 2117-132. Bringing birth back: Midwifery implementation in nunavut.

Meeting the needs of nunavut families: A community-based midwifery education program. Rural and Remote Health, 10 21355. Sinews of Survival: the Living Legacy of Inuit Clothing. Hunting for Seals and for Inuit Culture at Nunavut Arctic College.

Gender Differences in the Association between Westernization and Metabolic Risk Among Greenland Inuit. European Journal of Epidemiology 21 10 : 741—748.

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