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It may contain,and often functions otherwise it is considered only an application processor. Higher-performance SoCs are often paired with dedicated and physically separate memory and secondary storage such as and orrespectively chips, that may Was ist HTTP Chip? layered on top of the SoC in what's known as a PoP configuration, or be placed close to the SoC. Additionally, SoCs may use separate wireless.
SoCs are in contrast to the common traditional -basedwhich separates components based on function and connects them through a central interfacing circuit board. Whereas a motherboard houses and connects detachable or replaceable components, SoCs integrate all of these components into a single integrated circuit.
Similar to how a microcontroller integrates a microprocessor with peripheral circuits and memory, an SoC can be seen as integrating a microcontroller with even more advanced.
For an overview of integrating system components, see. More tightly integrated computer system designs improve and reduce as well as area than multi-chip designs with equivalent functionality. This comes at the cost of reduced of components.
By definition, SoC designs are fully or nearly fully integrated across different component. For these reasons, there has been a general trend towards tighter integration of components in thein part due to the influence of SoCs and lessons Was ist HTTP Chip? from the mobile and embedded computing markets. SoCs can be viewed as part of a larger trend towards and.
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SoCs are very common in the such as in and and markets. They are also commonly used in such as WiFi routers and the. However, they are typically used in mobile computing such as tablets, smartphones, smartwatches and netbooks as well as and in applications where previously would be used.
Tighter system integration offers better reliability andand SoCs offer more advanced functionality and computing power than microcontrollers. Applications includeembedded,and. Often embedded SoCs target theand markets. With increasing memory sizes, high end SoCs will often have no memory and flash storage and instead, the memory and will be placed right next to, or abovethe SoC.
In previous Acorn -powered computers, these were four discrete chips. SoCs are being applied to mainstream personal computers as of 2018. They are particularly applied to laptops and. Tablet and laptop manufacturers have learned lessons from embedded systems and smartphone markets about reduced power consumption, better performance and reliability from tighter of hardware andand and other communications integrated on chip integrated.
Whether single-core, orSoC processor cores typically use instruction set architectures.
In particular, SoC processor cores often use the because it is a specified as an and is more power efficient than. Depending on the application, SoC memory may form a and. In the mobile computing market, this is common, but in many embedded microcontrollers, this is not necessary. For Was ist HTTP Chip? discussion of multi-processing memory issues, see and. These are often based upon industry standards such as,etc.
These interfaces will differ according to the intended application. When needed, SoCs include interfaces including andoften for. These may be able to Was ist HTTP Chip? with different types of orincluding. They may interface with application-specific or shields. Or they may be internal to the SoC, such as if an analog sensor is built in to the SoC and its readings must be converted to digital signals for mathematical processing.
They perform operations in SoCs for,and multimedia processing. Such application-specific instructions correspond to dedicated hardware that compute those instructions. Popular time sources are and. SoC including -timers, real-time and generators. SoCs also include and circuits.
These units must often send data and back and forth. Was ist HTTP Chip? of this, all but the most trivial SoCs require. Originally, as with other technologies, architectures were used, but recently designs based on sparse intercommunication networks known as NoC have risen to prominence and are forecast to overtake bus architectures for SoC design in the near future.
Computer buses are limited insupporting only up to tens of cores on a single chip. These challenges are prohibitive to supporting systems on chip. A trend towards has caused on-chip communication efficiency to become one of the key factors in determining the overall system performance and cost. Network-on-chip architectures take inspiration from like and the for on-chip communication, although they typically have fewer.
Optimal network-on-chip are an ongoing area of much research interest. Many SoC researchers consider NoC architectures to Was ist HTTP Chip? the future of SoC design because they have been shown to efficiently meet power and throughput needs of SoC designs. Current NoC architectures are two-dimensional.
The for an SoC aims to develop this hardware and software at the same time, also known as architectural co-design. The design flow must also take into account optimizations and constraints. Of particular importance are the that drive industry-standard interfaces like. The hardware blocks are put together using tools, specifically tools; Was ist HTTP Chip? are integrated using a software. These elements are connected together in a hardware description language to create the full SoC design.
The logic specified to connect these components and convert between possibly different interfaces provided by different vendors is called. This process is called and it accounts for a significant portion of the time and energy expended in theoften quoted as 70%. With the growing complexity of chips, like,and are being used. Traditionally, engineers have employed simulation acceleration, or prototyping on to verify and debug hardware and software for SoC designs prior to the finalization of the design, known as.
With high capacity and fast compilation time, simulation acceleration and emulation are powerful technologies that provide wide visibility into systems. In parallel, the hardware elements are grouped and passed through a process ofduring which performance constraints, such as operational frequency and expected signal delays, are applied.
This generates an output known as a describing the design as a physical circuit and its interconnections. These netlists are combined with the connecting the components to produce the schematic description of the SoC as a circuit which can be onto a chip. Optimization is necessarily a design goal of SoCs. If optimization was not necessary, the engineers would use a architecture without accounting for the area use, power consumption or performance of the system to the same extent.
Common optimization targets for SoC designs follow, with explanations of each. In general, optimizing any of these quantities may be a hard problem, and can indeed be fairly easily.
Therefore, sophisticated are often required and it may be practical to use or in some cases. Additionally, most SoC designs containso solutions are sought after in SoC design. Oftentimes the goals of optimizing some of these quantities are directly at odds, further adding complexity to design optimization of SoCs and introducing in system design.
For broader coverage of trade-offs andsee. Most SoCs must use low power. SoC systems often require long such ascan potentially spend months or years without a power source while needing to maintain autonomous function, and often are limited in power use by a high number of SoCs being in an area.
Additionally, energy costs can be high and conserving energy will reduce the of the SoC. Finally, from high energy consumption can damage other circuit components if too much heat is dissipated, giving another pragmatic reason to conserve energy. The amount of energy used in a circuit is the of consumed with respect to time, and the of power consumption is the product of by.
Customers want long battery lives for devices, another reason that power consumption Was ist HTTP Chip? be minimized in SoCs. Computation is more demanding as expectations move towards at withso SoCs performing multimedia tasks must be computationally capable platform while being low power to run off a standard mobile battery.
Many applications such asand require a certain level ofbut power is limited in most SoC environments.
The has greater performance per watt than in embedded systems, so it is preferred over Was ist HTTP Chip? for most SoC applications requiring an. As with otherheat generated due to high are the to further of components. Too much waste heat can damage circuits and erode of the circuit over time. High temperatures and thermal stress negatively impact reliability,decreased,and other performance degradation of the SoC over time. Because of high on modern devices, oftentimes a layout of sufficient throughput and high is physically realizable from but would result in unacceptably high amounts of heat Was ist HTTP Chip?
the circuit's volume. Due to increased as length scales get smaller, each produces more heat output than the last. Compounding this problem, SoC architectures are usually heterogeneous, creating spatially inhomogeneouswhich cannot be effectively mitigated by uniform.
October 2018 SoCs are optimized to minimize for some or all of their functions. This can be accomplished by elements with proper proximity and to each-other to minimize the interconnection delays and maximize the speed at which data is communicated between modules, and memories.
In general, optimizing to minimize latency is an problem equivalent to the. For running on processor cores, latency and throughput can be improved with. Some tasks run in application-specific hardware units, however, and even task scheduling may not be sufficient to optimize all software-based tasks to meet timing and throughput constraints.
October 2018 Systems on chip are modeled with standard hardware techniques, but additional techniques are used to model and optimize SoC design alternatives to make the system optimal with respect to on the above optimization targets.
It is important to reduce and increase for running on an SoC's. Not every important computing activity in a SoC is performed in software running on on-chip processors, but scheduling can drastically improve performance of software-based tasks and other tasks involving.
SoCs often schedule tasks according to and algorithms. Hardware and software tasks are often pipelined in. Pipelining is an important principle for in. For instance, allows SoC states and NoC buffers Was ist HTTP Chip? be modeled as arrival processes and analyzed through and. Markov chain modeling allows of the SoC's of power, heat, latency and other factors to allow design decisions to be optimized for the common case.
The netlists described above are used as the basis for the physical design flow to convert the designers' intent into the design of the SoC. When all known bugs have been rectified and these have been re-verified and all physical design checks are done, the physical design files describing each layer of the chip are sent to the foundry's mask shop where a full set of glass lithographic masks will be etched.
These are sent to a wafer fabrication plant to create the SoC dice before packaging and testing. SoC designs consume less power and have a lower cost and higher reliability than Was ist HTTP Chip? multi-chip systems that they replace.
With fewer packages in the system, assembly costs are reduced as well. When it is not feasible to construct an SoC for a particular application, an alternative is a SiP comprising a number of chips in a single. When produced in large volumes, SoC is more cost-effective than SiP because Was ist HTTP Chip?
packaging is simpler. Another reason SiP may be preferred is may be too high in a SoC for a given purpose because functional components are too close together, and in an SiP heat will dissipate better from different functional modules since they are physically further apart. They often fit over a such as an or such as the and function as for the device. Pipelined Multiprocessor System-on-Chip for Multimedia.
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Network-on-chip: the Next Generation of System-on-Chip Integration 1st ed. Heat Management in Integrated circuits: On-chip and system-level monitoring and cooling. London, United Kingdom: The Institution of Engineering and Technology. Network-on-chip: the Next Generation of System-on-Chip Integration 1st ed.